Cardiovascular diseases accounted for more deaths than any other major cause of death worldwide. Endothelial injury and dysfunction, atherosclerosis and calcification are the major cause of cardiovascular diseases. Biological nanoparticles (BNP) are novel bacteria with the smallest cellular dimension known on earth (50-300 nm). BNP are recently accused to play the role in the process of endothelial injury and hence atherosclerosis facilitating coronary artery disease (CAD).
The aim of this study was to detect BNP in serum and urine samples of CAD patients to determine their role, incidence, prevalence and correlation with occurrence of coronary artery disease in Egyptian patients.
The study was conducted on 38 patients and was divided into two groups. Group (I) included 28 patients with confirmed CAD by coronary angiography. Group (2) included 10 patients with excluded CAD by coronary angiography as control group. Both groups were subdivided into 2 subgroups according to sample type. Every patient was subjected clinical examination, chest X ray, EGG recording, echocardiography, coronary angiography and laboratory investigations. BNP was detected in human blood and urine by scanning electron microscope (SEM).
BNP were detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in 78.57% of CAD patients, in serum and urine 53.57% and in serum only 25%, showing a strong association between BPN detection in serum and urine with CAD (p< 0.01). BNP were not detected in serum or urine samples of control group. No statistical significance was shown between BNP serum and urine negative and positive groups, regarding the different risk factors for CAD including age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, smoking and lipid profile. Coronary angiography results in BNP serum and urine positive patients emphasized significant LAD lesions in 19 (86.36%) and 17 (100%) of patients (p 0.01 and p 0.01), followed by LCX in 16 (72.73%) and 13 (76.47%) of patients (p< 0.05 and p< 0.05) then RCA in 16 (72.73%) and 12 (70.59%) of patients (p< 0.05 and p> 0.05) and LMCA was the least to be affected showing 3 (13.64%) and 14 (8.35%) of patients with a significant statistical reverse correlation (p< 0.01 and p< 0.01) respectively. Nine (52.94%) BNP urine positive versus one (9.1 %) BNP urine negative patients showed significant statistical finding between BPN detection in urine and RWMA as a component of estimating the cardiac muscle condition.
BNP was detected by SEM in (78.57%) of the total patients with CAD showing a strong association between BPN detection in serum and urine with CAD.. These data may help to understand critical medical importance of already demonstrated effects of BNP on atherosclerosis and pathologic calcification in the human body especially coronary arteries.