Memory is the process by which that knowledge of the world is encoded, stored and later retrieved, learning is the process by which we acquire knowledge about the world so memory is closely related to learning and both are usually considered together.
From information processing perspective there are three main stages in the formation and retrieval of memory:
• Encoding or registration (processing and combining of received information)
• Storage (creation of a permanent record of the encoded information)
• Retrieval or recall (calling back the stored information in response to some cue for use in a process or activity).
Brain parts involved in neuroanatomy of memory and learning include:
A- Subcortical structures include hippocampus, amygdalae, basal ganglia and cerebellum.
B- Cortical structures includes frontal,parietal and temporal lobes.
Learning and memory are attributed to changes in neuronal synapses, thought to be mediated by long-term potentiation and long-term depression.
Memory is classified according to the duration of memory retention (depending on how long information is stored) into sensory register, short term or working memory, and long term memory.
Sensory memory include iconic (visual) memory , echoic (auditory) memory and haptic memory.
Working memory consists of three basic stores: the central executive, the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad and episodic buffer.
Long-term memory includes two components: declarative (DM) or explicit memory ("knows that") and nondeclarative (NDM) or implicit memory ("knows how").
Declarative memory can be divided into two categories: episodic memory and semantic memory. Non-declarative is known as procedural memory.
There are four different types of learning that occur in normal waking consciousness, depending on whether the outer physical environment or inner mental processes are focused upon the primary cause of the physical organism's observed performance (a) classical (respondent) conditioning, (b) operant (instrumental) conditioning, (c) observational (vicarious) learning, and (d) cognitive (information-processing) learning.
There is now extensive evidence that working memory is linked to key learning outcomes in literacy and numeracy. Impairments of working memory are closely associated with learning deficits, as well as daily classroom activities. Without early intervention, memory deficits cannot be made up over time and will continue to compromise achild’s likelihood of academic success.
Variety of memory problems are evidenced in the learning-disabled. These include problems in receptive memory, sequential memory, rote memory, short term memory, and long term memory.
Assessment of memory deficits in learning disability include assessment of receptive memory (auditory and visual memory), sequential memory, short term memory (working memory), and long term memory.
► General techniques for improving attention and memory include:
1) Increase Attention.
2) Enhance Meaningfulness.
3) Minimize Interference.